Make
Blacklight

It's incredibly easy to make a black light with your phone. Let's make one, and glow the fluorescent things in the dark with your blacklight.
Duration 15 Min
Difficulty 2/4

Material list

What is happening

It’s difficult to find a UV light source . But you can mimic the effect using a white light source, purple and blue filters.

Black light is technically ultra-violet (UV)light, more specifically, it is UV-A light, the long wavelength region of UV light. Generally, it is very expensive to make a bulb that emits UV light. But white light from a bulb contains a  very small portion of UV light. Using a purple and blue filter we can filter out that portion of UV light and make a super easy blacklight source.

Directions

Gather the materials

You will only need a few things to do this experiment that are readily available in your house.

Step 01

Rip off a small piece of tape

Step 02

Place the clear tape over the flash

Place the piece of tape over the camera light on the phone.

Step 03

Color with a purple pen

Color on top of the tape with a purple marker so that it covers the flash.

Step 03

Place another tape and color with blue pen

Place another piece of tape over the first. Color the area over the light with blue pen

Step 05

Place another tape and color again with purple pen​

Place one more piece of tape on top. This time, color the area over the light with purple again.

Step 07

You're done!

Your blacklight source is ready to use.

Step 09

Draw something on paper

Draw a picture or message on the white paper with your highlighter pen.

Step 10

Lights out!

Grab your picture and turn off the lights. Then turn on the camera light of your phone and make your picture glow.

Step 10

More Science

 Many highlighters fluoresce or absorb and emit light, which makes them glow in the dark. But why? Light is a spectrum. The region of spectrum that we can see is called visible light. It ranges from red to violet light. However, there are other types of light, including infrared and ultraviolet  (or UV) light. UV light is what a blacklight bulb emits. More specifically, it is UV-A light, the long wavelength region of UV light.

The ink of the highlighter pen show a unusual glow becuse it converts some of the incident ultraviolet light that is invisible to humans into visible light.

White light is a combination of lights with different wavelengths. It contains a very small portion of UV-A light also. When you colored the tape with blue and purple markers, you created a filter that blocked out all colors of visible light except blue and purple. It is enough to make the highlighter fluoresce because the wavelengths of purple and blue light are close enough to the UV spectrum.

 

Recent Updates

Make Blacklight

It's super easy to make a black light with your smartphone.

Hooey Stick

Hooey stick is a wooden toy that has probably amused children...

Impossible to Mix

You can shake this one all day long-it will always return...

Floating Leaves

What is photosynthesis? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and...

Fire Foam

Let's do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!...

Hooey
Stick

When a normal stick is pulled over the notches of another stick, the propeller starts to rotate. The vibration it generates translates into rotation of the propeller.
Duration 10 Min
Difficulty 2/4

Material list

What is happening

A normal Hooey stick consists of two sticks and one of them is made up of a series of notches with a propeller at its end. When the normal stick is pulled over the notches of another stick, the propeller starts to rotate. The vibration it generates translates into rotation of the propeller. What mysterious force is playing here?

There are many possible explanations are out there about the device, one of them is, When rubbing the stick over the notches, it creates both vertical and horizontal vibrations which leads to an elliptical motion of the nail and causes the propeller to rotate due to friction with the nail.

Still there are many questions to be answered.

 
 

Directions

Gather the materials

You will need only a few things to do this experiment that can be found in your house.

Step 01

Bend the paper clip

Bend the paper clip. Gently unfold the wire of paper clip, make it straight

Step 02

Tie the paperclip on a pencil

Tie the paperclip on a pencil. Use a rubber band to tie the paperclip on the tip of pencil

Step 03

Tie rubber bands on pencil

Tie rubber bands on pencil.. Tie several rubber bands on the pencil with equal distance.

Step 04

Make the propeller

Draw circles on the card paper. Using the compass to draw some circles with different sizes on the card paper. Use the scissor to cut along the marked circles.

Step 05

Fold the circles like in the picture

Fold the circles like in the picture. Cut the edge of folded circles. You will get flower shapes. It can be your propeller for the Hooey stick.

Step 06

Fix the propeller on the paper

Fix the propeller on the paper clip. Make holes on the centre of the propeller using the compass.

Step 07

Put some polymer clay on the tip

Put some polymer clay on the tip of the paper clip. It will block the propeller from falling off while rotating.

Step 08

Rub the pencil back and forth

Finally rub the pencil back and forth with another pencil or pen. Amazingly the propeller will turn. How is linear motion converted to rotational motion?

Step 09

More Science

The device has a variety of names, probably because it was popularized independently in many places. Some of the names in English are gee-haw whammy diddle, wammy doodle, beano stick,  and idiot stick. Despite its simplicity, physical principles governing the motion of the stick and the propeller are rather complicated and interesting.

When the normal stick is pulled over the notches of another stick, the propeller starts to rotate. The vibration it generates translates into rotation of the propeller.

There have been many research papers written about how a hooey stick works but they all do not agree with each other. One possible explanation is, rubbing the stick over the notches creates both vertical and horizontal vibrations- and leads to an elliptical motion of the nail in the centre of a propeller, which begins to rotate due to friction with the nail.

The crucial feature is that the propellor must not be pinned at its CM – which can be avoided by making the hole in the propellor at least twice the diameter of the pin. The larger the distance of the CM from the pin, the larger the amplitude of vibrations of the pin needed to rotate the propeller.

Extra Bit:

There is a secret trick you can enjoy a lot,  when rubbing the sticks you don’t just rub over the notches(rubber bands). The trick is that when you rub, press against the propeller-stick from one side with your index finger or the other side from your thumb. In that way you can control the direction of rotation of the propeller

Recent Updates

Make Blacklight

It's super easy to make a black light with your smartphone.

Hooey Stick

Hooey stick is a wooden toy that has probably amused children...

Impossible to Mix

You can shake this one all day long-it will always return...

Floating Leaves

What is photosynthesis? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and...

Fire Foam

Let's do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!...

Impossible
to Mix

You can shake this one all day long—it will always return to its original three layers.
Duration 10 Min
Difficulty 2/4

Material list

What is happening

Normally, density columns are made by layering liquids of different densities. But if they disturbed or shaken all liquids get mixed up the soluble layers will combine and usually end up settling into two layers: a hydrophilic (polar) watery layer and a hydrophobic (nonpolar) oily layer.

If neighbouring layers are insoluble with each other, the column will stay in separate layers unless disturbed. To achieve this a special ingredient, “salt” is added to the mixture. It causes all three liquids to be insoluble with each other, you can mix the column as much as you like—it will always settle into three layers.

Directions

Gather the materials

You will need only a few things to do this experiment that can be found in your house.

Step 01

Add water to the bottle

Step 02

Pour vegetable oil

Step 03

Pour rubbing alcohol

Pour in a little more alcohol than the amount of water.

Step 04

Drop some food color and mix

Add few drops of food color you prefer. Let the mixture sit. How many layers do you see once the mixture settles?

Step 05

Let's separate the liquids

Add salt and mix until it dissolves. Keep adding and mixing until there is some salt that does not dissolve into the mixture.

Step 06

Shake the bottle and let it settle

Replace the cap. Shake the bottle so that everything mixes together and wait for it to settle. How many layers do you see once the mixture settles?

Step 07

More Science

The density column we made uses a phenomenon called “salting out” to preserve its layers. When salt is added to the mixture, the ions bond with the water molecules and exclude the slightly less polar alcohol molecules from forming hydrogen bonds with water, making it no longer soluble with water. The alcohol stays separate and ends up as its own layer on top of the column because it has a lower density than oil. Since the salt causes all three liquids to be insoluble with each other, you can mix the column as much as you like—it will always settle into three layers.

Recent Updates

Make Blacklight

It's super easy to make a black light with your smartphone.

Hooey Stick

Hooey stick is a wooden toy that has probably amused children...

Impossible to Mix

You can shake this one all day long-it will always return...

Floating Leaves

What is photosynthesis? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and...

Fire Foam

Let's do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!...

Floating
Leaves

What is photosynthesis? What are the necessary conditions for it? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and learn.
Duration 40 Min
Difficulty 3/4

Material list

What is happening

Plants cook their food through photosynthesis, it requires water, carbon dioxide and light. If we provide al these photosynthesis starts and as a by-product oxygen is produced, and this oxygen is the reason for the leaf disc in the experiment to float.

Directions

Gather the materials

Baking soda and liquid soap can be purchased from a stationary shop and plastic syringe from a medical store.

Step 01

Fill two glasses with equal amount of water

Take two similar glasses or any transparent container and fill it with equal amounts of water.

Step 02

Add soap to the water

Add a few drops of liquid soap water in both glasses and mix.

Step 03

Add baking soda to one glass

Add a small spoon of baking soda to one of the glass. Mark it as ‘With baking soda‘.

Step 04

Cut leaf discs

Use the tip of a plastic straw to cut leaves into small discs. Gently press the straw by putting a leaf between your thumb and straw.

Step 05

Put leaf discs into syringe

Remove the piston of the syringe and put leaf discs into the barrel.

Step 06

Draw water into syringe

Draw a few mL of water into the syringe. The leaf disks should float in the water because of the air content in the leaves.

Step 07

Suck air out of the leaves

Hold the syringe as its tip on top and expel the air by slowly pushing on the piston. Close the tip of the syringe tightly with your finger. Create a slight vacuum by gently pulling the piston. Hold it for a few seconds, and then release it. Repeat 2-3 times till all leaf disks sink to the bottom.

Step 08

Transfer the solution into glasses

Transfer the leaf discs into the glasses, the discs will begin to settle at the bottom

Step 09

Place the glasses under a light source

Place the glasses under sunlight or any other light source. Notice tiny bubbles forming on the discs on glass-2. After a few minutes, the discs on the glass-2 will begin to float. No changes happened to glass-1, why?

Step 10

More Science

Plants cook their food through photosynthesis, it requires water, carbon dioxide and light. As a by-product oxygen is also produced. The Leaf discs in the experiment  extract water from the prepared solution. And baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) provides the required carbon dioxide. If a light source is present, photosynthesis begins. Plant material generally floats in water, it is due to the air content inside. If a gentle vacuum is applied, the air inside the leaf disks is forced out, causing it to sink. When  photosynthesis begins, oxygen bubbles are produced by the leaves, making them float again.

Extra bit: When all the disks are afloat, move the flask to a dark room, or cover the whole flask with a cloth. Check it after fifteen minutes. What happens to the disks?

 
 
 

Recent Updates

Make Blacklight

It's super easy to make a black light with your smartphone.

Hooey Stick

Hooey stick is a wooden toy that has probably amused children...

Impossible to Mix

You can shake this one all day long-it will always return...

Floating Leaves

What is photosynthesis? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and...

Fire Foam

Let's do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!...

Fire
Foam

What happens if hydrogen burns? It results in an explosion with powerful sound. Let’s do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!
Duration 40 Min
Difficulty 3/4

Material list

Safety Note

Wear rubber gloves and safety glasses before doing the experiment.

What is happening

Metals react with base to give metal salt and hydrogen gas. Here, sodium hydroxide(drain cleaner), a strong base reacts with aluminium metal and produces hydrogen gas. The gas then passed to the soap solution, creating a foam composed of hydrogen bubbles. Hydrogen loves to react with oxygen, creating an explosion with a powerful sound BOOM!

Directions

Gather the materials

Aluminium foil, glycerine and liquid soap can be purchased from a stationary shop and pipe cleaner from a hardware shop

Step 01

Take water in glass bowl

Take some water in a glass bowl or plastic container. Don’t use containers with narrow openings, for example bottles.

Step 02

Add soap to the water

Add a few drops of soap and some glycerin. Glycerine will make the bubbles last longer

Step 03

Add drain cleaner to bottle

Poke a hole on the cap of the bottle using the scissor. Insert the pipe through the hole. Seal the cap with some polymer clay.

Step 04

Add drain cleaner to bottle

Put on rubber gloves and safety glasses to protect your hands and eyes. Add 2 small spoons of drain cleaner to the plastic bottle.

Step 04

Add piece of aluminium foil

Cut strips of aluminium foil and put them into the bottle. Don’t crumble the pieces.

Step 05

Add water

Add water to the bottle, the reaction. Hydrogen bubbles will begin to form on the surface of the foil. This chemical reaction produces heat. It is recommended to keep the bottle in a pan of water,  thus we can prevent it from getting too hot. If the bottle starts to deform and chemical spills stop the experiment put the bottle in a lot of water.

Step 06

Make hydrogen bubbles

The hydrogen starts to generate on the bottle and comes out through the tube. Put the end of the tube in the soap solution, You will see bubbles forming.

Step 07

Suck air out of the leaves

Show a burning match stick on the foam. BOOM !

Swirl the bottle or add more aluminium strips to repeat the experiment.

Step 08

More Science

Metals react with base to give metal salt and hydrogen gas. Here, sodium hydroxide(drain cleaner), a strong base reacts with aluminium metal and produces hydrogen gas. The gas then passed to the soap solution, creating a foam composed of hydrogen bubbles. Hydrogen loves to react with oxygen, creating an explosion. Even a tiny spark can start the reaction. Actually, the thermal impulse needed to ignite hydrogen is about 10 times less than that necessary to ignite an equivalent mixture of air and natural gas. . It is crucial to observe safety precautions when working with hydrogen. As soon as the impulse is given, this simple reaction starts:

2 Hydrogen + Oxygen → 2 Water + Heat


 
 
 

Safety Rules

Do not allow chemicals to come into contact with eyes or mouth.

Keep children, animals, and those not wearing eye protection away from the experimental area.

Store the experimental set out of the reach of children under 12 years.

Clean all equipment after use.

Ensure that all empty containers are disposed properly.

Do not use any equipment which has not been supplied with the set or recommended in the instructions.

Do not replace foodstuffs in the original container.

In case of eye contact: Wash out eye with plenty of water. Seek immediate medical advice.

If swallowed: Wash out mouth with water, drink fresh water. Do not induce vomiting. Seek immediate medical advice.

In case of inhalation: Move the person to fresh air.

In case of skin contact, injury and burns: Wash the affected area with plenty of water for at least 10 minutes.

In case of doubt, seek medical advice without delay. Take the chemical and its container with you.

The incorrect use of chemicals can cause injury and damage to health.

The experimental set is for use only by children over 12 years.

The experiments should be conducted under the supervision of adults.

The supervising adult should discuss the warnings and safety information with the child before commencing the experiments.

Handle acids, alkalis and flammable liquids with utmost care.

Conduct experiment in a clear, ventilated area which is close to water supply and away from food storage.

Substances in non-reclosable packaging should be used up (completely) during the course of one experiment, i.e. after opening the package.

Recent Updates

Make Blacklight

It's super easy to make a black light with your smartphone.

Hooey Stick

Hooey stick is a wooden toy that has probably amused children...

Impossible to Mix

You can shake this one all day long-it will always return...

Floating Leaves

What is photosynthesis? Don't just remember, let's do an experiment and...

Fire Foam

Let's do an experiment to generate hydrogen and make it blast!...